Selasa, 16 Oktober 2012

Mata - Eyes Penyakit


Jenis-jenis Penyakit Mata


mata merupakan anugrah luar biasa yang dikaruniakan kepada manusia. Mata merupakan organ yang penting dalam kehidupan semua orang dan binatang. Oleh itu, organ ini perlu dijaga dengan sebaik-baiknya, kerana tanpanya atau ia tidak berfungsi lagi, maka gelaplah dunia ini
Terdapat berbagai jenis penyakit mata, dari kanak-kanak sehingga ke peringkat dewasa dan tua. Ada penyakit yang perlu diubati dengan segera supaya mata tidak menjadi bertambah rosak dan akhirnya buta. Ada yang hanya sekadar kurang jelas penglihatan yang mana ia hanya memerlukan penggunaan cermin mata untuk memperbaiki penglihatannya. berikut jenis-jenis penyakit mata
Many People Miss the Mark on Eye Diseases and Conditions.

A recent survey of 1,000 American adults shows that nearly half — 47% — worry more about losing their sight than about losing their memory and their ability to walk or hear. But almost 30% indicated that they don’t get their eyes checked. Many Americans are unaware of the warning signs of eye diseases and conditions that could cause damage and blindness if not detected and treated soon enough. Let’s take a look at some of the most common eye diseases and conditions.
Glaucoma
Glaucoma (the sneak thief of sight) refers to certain eye diseases that affect the optic nerve and cause vision loss. It typically produces elevated pressure inside the eye, called intraocular pressure (IOP) and can usually be classified as either open-angle (chronic conditions of long duration) or closed-angle (angle closure), which occur suddenly. The elderly, African-Americans, and people with family histories of the disease are at greatest risk. There are no symptoms in the early stages and by the time the patient notices vision changes, visual loss due to glaucoma can only be halted, not reversed. Glaucoma is usually treated with eye drops, although lasers and surgery can also be used. Most cases can be controlled well with these treatments, thereby preventing further loss of vision. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to preserving sight in people with glaucoma.
Cataracts
Cataract is a painless condition where the normally clear aspirin-sized lens of the eye starts to become cloudy. The result is much like smearing grease over the lens of a camera which impairs normal vision. Causes of cataracts include cortisone medication, trauma, diabetes, and aging. In fact, cataracts will affect most people if they live long enough. Diagnosis can be made when a doctor examines the eyes with a viewing instrument. Symptoms of early cataracts may be improved with new eyeglasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses. If these measures do not help, surgically removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens is the only effective treatment. Removal is only necessary when vision loss interferes with your everyday activities, such as driving, reading, or watching TV. You and your eye- care professional can discuss the surgery and once you understand the benefits and risks, you can make an informed decision about whether cataract surgery is right for you. In most cases, delaying cataract surgery will not cause long-term damage to your eye or make the surgery more difficult.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration is an eye disease with its onset usually after age 60 that progressively destroys the macula, the central portion of the retina, impairing central vision. It rarely causes blindness because only the center of vision is affected. There are two types of AMD — wet and dry — neither of which causes pain. In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow under the macula and leak blood and fluid causing loss of central vision which may occur quickly. Treatment includes laser surgery, photodynamic therapy, and injections into the eye. None of these will cure the disease and loss of vision may still progress. In dry AMD, the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down causing central vision to diminish over time. Early stages of dry AMD can be treated with high-dose formulations ofantioxidants and zinc which may delay and possibly prevent AMD from progressing to a more advanced stage. Once in the advanced stage, no form of treatment can restore vision loss.
Retinal Detachment
A retinal detachment is a separation of the retina from its attachments to its underlying tissue within the eye. Most retinal detachments are a result of a retinal break, hole, or tear. Once the retina has torn, liquid from the vitreous gel (clear gel that fills most of the inside of the eye) passes through the tear and accumulates behind the retina. The build-up of fluid behind the retina is what separates (detaches) the retina from the back of the eye. Flashing lights and floaters may be the initial symptoms of a retinal detachment or of a retinal tear that precedes the detachment itself. Retinal detachments can occur at any age but occur most commonly in younger adults (age 25 to 50) who are highly nearsighted and in older people following cataract surgery. Surgical repair of a retinal detachment is usually successful in reattaching the retina, although more than one procedure may be necessary. Once the retina is reattached, vision usually improves and then stabilizes.
Bacterial Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, is redness and inflammation of the membranes (conjuctiva) covering the whites of the eyes and the membranes on the inner part of the eyelids. The term pink-eye is most commonly used to refer to the infectious (viral or bacterial) type of conjunctivitis, but it may also result from allergic reactions or chemical irritants such as air pollution, smoke, or noxious fumes. The infectious form is very common in children and is highly contagious. Children and adults who develop infectious pink eye should see a doctor to determine whether antibiotic treatment is necessary. Most infectious cases are caused by viruses and will not respond to antibiotics. In theseinstances, the discharge from the eye is clear and watery and symptoms of a cold may be present. Viral infections last from seven to 10 days. Bacterial pink eye generally results in a large amount of discharge that is green to yellow in color. This discharge can accumulate at night and make opening the eye difficult in the morning. Bacterial pink eye usually lasts three to five days and requires antibiotic eye drops to help the body remove the bacterial infection. Application of warm washcloths to the eye area is also effective in removing discharge. To reduce the chance of spreading infectious pink eye, those affected should avoid touching the eye area and wash their hands frequently, particularly before applying medications to the eye area. Sharing of towels, washcloths, cosmetics, or eye drops can also spread the infection.
Uveitis
Uveitis (pronounced you-vee-EYE-tis) involves all inflammatory processes of the middle layers of the eye, also called the uveal tract or uvea. The uvea is very important because its many veins and arteries transport blood to the parts of the eye that are critical for vision. Symptoms of uveitis may include eye redness and irritation, blurred vision, eye pain, increased sensitivity to light, and floating spots. Potential causes include infection with a virus, fungus, bacteria or parasite, inflammatory disease affecting other parts of the body, or injury to the eye. Because uveitis is serious, treatment needs to begin right away. For uveitis not caused by an infection, your ophthalmologist may prescribe eye drops containing steroids to reduce swelling and drugs to relieve pain. Antibiotics are used in patients with infectious uveitis. Dark glasses will help with light sensitivity.

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